Data was calculated using LS-DYNA to model the propagation of single-frequency pulses in a long steel pressure bar. At each normalised frequency a short, raised-cosine windowed sinusoidal forcing function was applied to the end of the bar. The stress in the bar dispersed into multiple modal 'pulses' as it propagated, allowing the contribution of each mode to be calculated from the amplitude of the pulses.

Values are provided up to a normalised frequency of fa/c0 = 0.9, where f is frequency, a is the radius of the bar, and c0 is the one-dimensional wave speed. The table indicates whether the values are modelled directly in LS-DYNA (M) or calculated by interpolation of the modelled results (I).

More details are available in our Impact Engineering paper below: